Lighters system and history :
Electric lighters with heating resistance
Lighter imagined in 1874 by Gaston Planté: "lighter of Saturn" It consists of a battery providing an electric current that makes a platinum wire turn red.
Electric arc lighters
The electric arc briquettes are constituted by a battery supplying an electric current which supplies a transformer supplying high voltage electrical current to two brass electrodes producing a continuous electric arc.
Ignition of a Zippo petrol lighter.
Gas lighters are widespread, and are suitable for all types of use. Democratized by other soldiers of the First World War2,3,4 and the invention at the end of the nineteenth century of the lighter stone by Carl Auer von Welsbach.
Gasoline briquettes have a long battery life and are rechargeable. The fuel used, often of the essence F or of the alcohol to be burned, imbibes a wick by capillarity. A spring presses the briquette against the wheel. By operating the thumbwheel with the thumb on the product of a spark of sparks which ignites the vapors of the fuel. The flame, of large size, results from an incomplete combustion: it is yellow-orange, and produces blackish vapors.
Modern tinder lighter
Modern version where the wick of cotton / lead chromate is lit by the spark of a steel knob and lighter stone. The steel bead attached to the wick to the chain, hand, smother the fire after use.
A disposable gas lighter.
The gas lighter is a French invention (from Henry Pingeot, grandfather of Anne Pingeot5). Marcel Quercia, director of Flaminaire (Bic, Flamagas) launches the first models, a painting and another pocket named respectively the Gentry and the Crillon in 1948.
Gas lighters are the most common: products in industrial quantities since the 1960s, notably by the manufacturer Cricket and later BiC, most of them contain ignition of a flammable gas, often butane, Same way for gasoline lighters. These conventional, cheap briquettes compete with the other two types of gas briquettes.
The automatisms cause the production of a spark via an electronic device, generally piezoelectric. A simple press of a push button is enough to release the combustible gas and cause a spark.
The storm briquettes derive their name from the invention of sailors, for whom the corks and the elements, the tails are at sea, prevent the ignition of the combustible gas because of its dispersion. Contrary to popular opinion, the content of butane in storm briquettes is not at very high pressure. The windproof lighters make a better blend of the fuel with the air, and sometimes, pass the air-butane mixture through a catalyst, causing complete combustion of the fuel, with a bluish flame. The heat thus released can approach 1200 ° C. to 1500 ° C. The initially blue flame can be dyed red or green and vaporized as it passes through a metal filament (for example, copper to obtain a flame Green).
They are of a cylinder and a piston are not the end is a stall that allows to accommodate an initiator. The piston is provided with a greased seal (rubber, leather, tow) to ensure sealing when moving the piston in the cylinder. When the piston is pressed strongly and rapidly, the air enclosed in the cylinder is compressed and its temperature increases (adiabatic compression). This heating is sufficient to reach the temperature of self-ignition in the air of substances such as carbonized fabric or tinder. A pneumatic lighter makes it possible to obtain an embers in a single sharp gesture. It is then necessary to quickly remove the piston in order to allow the ignited initiator to burn in the air and ignite another fuel. That's all that's inspired Rudolf Diesel for his engine.
The solar lighter works by concentrating the sunlight on a specific point, it requires the use of a concave mirror or a lens. There have been solar briquettes for a long time, finding a patent for a solar lighter in 18786 and another patent for a solar lighter in 18857.
Various plastic solar lighters have been placed on the market since 19708,9. Currently the lighter solar declines on the base of a mirror parab